Dyslexia is characterized by difficulty with learning to readfluently and with accurate comprehension despite normalintelligence. This includes difficulty with phonological awareness, phonological decoding, processing speed,orthographic coding, auditory short-term memory, languageskills/verbal comprehension, and/or rapid naming.
Developmental reading disorder (DRD) is the most commonlearning disability. Dyslexia is the most recognized of readingdisorders, however not all reading disorders are linked todyslexia.
Adult dyslexics can read with good comprehension, althoughthey tend to read more slowly than non-dyslexics and performmore poorly at spelling and nonsense word reading, a measureof phonological awareness.
Some see dyslexia as distinct from reading difficulties resultingfrom other causes, such as a non-neurological deficiency withvision or hearing, or from poor or inadequate reading instruction. There are three proposed cognitive subtypes ofdyslexia (auditory, visual and attentional), although individualcases of dyslexia are better explained by specific underlyingneuropsychological deficits and co-occurring learningdisabilities (e.g. attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, mathdisability, etc.). Although it is considered to bea receptive language-based learning disability in the researchliterature, dyslexia also affects one's expressive language skills. Researchers at MIT found that people with dyslexia exhibitedimpaired voice-recognition abilities. It is believed theprevalence of dyslexia is around 5-10 percent of a givenpopulation although there have been no studies to indicate anaccurate percentage.
The World Federation of Neurology defines dyslexia as "adisorder manifested by difficulty in learning to read despiteconventional instruction, adequate intelligence and socioculturalopportunity".
The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Strokegives the following definition for dyslexia:
Other published definitions are purely descriptive or embodycausal theories. Varying definitions are used for dyslexia fromresearchers and organizations around the world; it appears thatthis disorder encompasses a number of reading skills, deficitsand difficulties with a number of causes rather than a singlecondition.
Castles and Coltheart describe phonological and surface typesof developmental dyslexia by analogy to classical subtypes ofalexia (acquired dyslexia) which are classified according to therate of errors in reading non-words. However, thedistinction between surface and phonological dyslexia has notreplaced the old empirical terminology of dysphonetic versusdyseidetic types of dyslexia. The surface/phonologicaldistinction is only descriptive, and devoid of any etiologicalassumption as to the underlying brain mechanisms. Studieshave, however, alluded to potential differential underlying brainmechanisms in these populations given performancedifferences. The dysphonetic/dyseidetic distinctionrefers to two different mechanisms; one that relates to a speechdiscrimination deficit, and another that relates to a visualperception impairment.
However, some think that dyslexia can increase the capacity tothink and perceive multi-dimensionally and can help furtherutilize the brain’s ability to alter and create perceptions.
Signs and symptoms Edit
See also: Characteristics of dyslexia
Some early symptoms that correlate with a later diagnosis ofdyslexia include delays in speech, letter reversal or mirrorwriting, and being easily distracted by background noise. This pattern of early distractibility is partially explained by theco-occurrence of dyslexia and attention-deficit/hyperactivitydisorder. Although each disorder occurs in approximately 5% ofchildren, 25-40% of children with either dyslexia or ADHD meetcriteria for the other disorder.
At later ages symptoms can include a difficulty identifying orgenerating rhyming words, or counting syllables in words(phonological awareness), a difficulty segmenting words intoindividual sounds, or blending sounds to make words, adifficulty with word retrieval or naming problems (see anomicaphasia), commonly very poor spelling, which hasbeen called dysorthographia or dysgraphia (orthographic coding), whole-word guesses, and tendencies to omit or addletters or words when writing and reading are considered classicsigns. Other classic signs for teenagers and adults with dyslexiainclude trouble with summarizing a story, memorizing, readingaloud, and learning a foreign language.
A common misconception about dyslexia is that dyslexic readerswrite words backwards or move letters around when reading –this only occurs in a very small population of dyslexic readers.Individuals with dyslexia are better identified by readingaccuracy, fluency, and writing skills that do not seem to matchtheir level of intelligence from prior observations.
Dyslexia and biology Edit
Researchers have been trying to find a biological basis ofdyslexia since it was first identified by Oswald Berkhan in1881 and the term dyslexia coined in 1887 by Rudolf Berlin. The theories of the etiology of dyslexia have and areevolving with each new generation of dyslexia researchers, andthe more recent theories of dyslexia tend to enhance one ormore of the older theories as understanding of the nature ofdyslexia evolves (see Theories of dyslexia).
Effect of language orthography Edit
The complexity of a language's orthography (i.e. its conventionalspelling system, see orthographic depth ) has a direct impactupon how difficult it is to learn to read that language. English hasa comparatively deep orthography within the Latin alphabetwriting system, with a complex orthographic structure thatemploys spelling patterns at several levels: principally, letter-sound correspondences, syllables, and morphemes. Otherlanguages, such as Spanish, have mostly alphabeticorthographies that employ letter-sound correspondences, so-called shallow orthographies. It is relatively easy to learn toread languages like Spanish; it is much more difficult to learn toread languages with more complex orthographies such asEnglish. Logographic writing systems, notably Japanese andChinese characters, have graphemes that are not linkeddirectly to their pronunciation, which pose a different type ofdyslexic difficulty.
From a neurological perspective, different types of writingsystems (e.g. alphabetic as compared to logographic writingsystems) require different neurological pathways in order toread, write, and spell. Because different writing systems requiredifferent parts of the brain to process the visual notation ofspeech, children with reading problems in one language mightnot have a reading problem in a language with a differentorthography. The neurological skills required to perform thetasks of reading, writing, and spelling can vary between differentwriting systems. As a result, different neurological deficits cancause dyslexic problems in relation to different orthographies.
Cross-cultural prevalence Edit
Cross-cultural study of the prevalence of dyslexia is difficult asdifferent scholars and different countries often use differentcriteria to distinguish the cases of dyslexia in the continuumbetween the able and delayed readers at schools. According tothe existing literature, the prevalence of dyslexia can vary widelybetween cultures. For example, Christall reports differencesbetween 1% and 33%. According to some researchers,despite the significant differences between the writing systems,Italian, German and English populations suffer similarly fromdyslexia.
Exacerbating conditions Edit
Several learning disabilities often occur with dyslexia, but it isunclear whether these learning disabilities share underlyingneurological causes with dyslexia. These disabilities include:
- Dysgraphia – a disorder which expresses itself primarilythrough writing or typing, although in some cases it may alsoaffect eye–hand coordination, direction- or sequence-oriented processes such as tying knots or carrying out arepetitive task. In dyslexia, dysgraphia is often multifactorial,due to impaired letter writing automaticity, finger motorsequencing challenges, organizational and elaborativedifficulties, and impaired visual word form which makes itmore difficult to retrieve the visual picture of words requiredfor spelling. Dysgraphia is distinct from dyspraxia in thatdyspraxia is simply related to motor sequence impairment.
- Attention deficit disorder – a high degree of co-morbidity has been reported between ADD/ADHD anddyslexia/reading disorders, it occurs in between 12% and24% of those with dyslexia.
- Auditory processing disorder – A condition that affects theability to process auditory information. Auditory processingdisorder is a listening disability. It can lead to problemswith auditory memory and auditory sequencing. Many peoplewith dyslexia have auditory processing problems and maydevelop their own logographic cues to compensate for thistype of deficit. Auditory processing disorder is recognized asone of the major causes of dyslexia.
- Developmental dyspraxia – A neurological conditioncharacterized by a marked difficulty in carrying out routinetasks involving balance, fine-motor control, kinestheticcoordination, difficulty in the use of speech sounds, problemswith short-term memory and organization are typical ofdyspraxics.
Experience of speech acquisition delays and speech andlanguage problems can be due to problems processing anddecoding auditory input prior to reproducing their own version ofspeech, and may be observed as stuttering, cluttering orhesitant speech.
Reported findings indicate that the symptoms and related co-morbid disorders found to characterize dyslexics were consistentwith and likely determined by cerebellar-vestibulardysfunctioning mechanisms. The coexisting symptoms includeddifficulties with writing, spelling, math, memory, speech,time,concentration, distractibility, sensory input, balance,coordination,etc. All these symptoms were alsoshown to respond favorably and rapidly to cerebellar-vestibularstabilizing/enhancing medications in clinical studies.Thus these diverse symptoms and differently named disorderswere reasoned due to a common cerebellar dysfunction, ratherthan caused by differing primary cerebral processingimpairments as traditionally believed. Based on clinical andneurophysiological considerations, an alternative unifyinghypothesis was proposed. It suggested that dyslexia and all itsreading and non-reading symptoms and comorbid disordersoccurred when normal higher brain structures secondarily failedto adequately recognize and process the scrambled reading andrelated signals received; and that this signal-scrambling defectwas due to a fine- tuning impairment of primary cerebellar origin.This dyslexia hypothesis was also consistent with the presenceof validating cerebellar and vestibular neurological signs,significant compensatory and related neuroplastic capabilities, afavorable prognosis, and normal to superior mental or cerebralfunctioning and corresponding IQ's.
There is no cure for dyslexia, but dyslexic individuals can learnto read and write with educational support. There aretechniques and technical aids that can manage or even concealsymptoms of the disorder. Removing stress and anxiety alonecan improve written comprehension.
For dyslexia intervention with alphabet writing systems thefundamental aim is to increase a child's awareness ofcorrespondences between graphemes and phonemes, and torelate these to reading and spelling. It has been found thattraining focused towards visual language and orthographicissues yields longer-lasting gains than mere oral phonologicaltraining.
There is some evidence that the use of specially tailored fontsmay provide some measure of assistance for those sufferingfrom dyslexia. Intervention early on while language areasin the brain are still developing is most successful in reducinglong-term impacts of dyslexia.
Dyslexia was identified by Oswald Berkhan in 1881, but theterm dyslexia was coined in 1887 by Rudolf Berlin, who was anophthalmologist in Stuttgart. He used the term to refer to acase of a young boy who had a severe impairment in learning toread and write in spite of showing typical intellectual andphysical abilities in all other respects.
In 1896 W. Pringle Morgan, a British physician from Seaford, East Sussex, published a description of a reading-specificlearning disorder in a report to the British Medical Journal titled"Congenital Word Blindness". This described the case of Percy,a 14-year-old boy who had not yet learned to read, yet showednormal intelligence and was generally adept at other activitiestypical of children that age.
The majority of currently available dyslexia research relates tothe alphabetic writing system, and especially to languages ofEuropean origin. However, substantial research is also availableregarding dyslexia for speakers of Arabic, Chinese, and Hebrew.
In the area of neurological research into dyslexia, modernneuroimaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography(PET) have produced clear evidence of structural differences inthe brains of children with reading difficulties. It has been foundthat people with dyslexia have a deficit in parts of the lefthemisphere of the brain involved in reading, which includes theinferior frontal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, and middle andventral temporal cortex.
Brain activation studies using PET to study language haveproduced a breakthrough in understanding of the neural basis oflanguage over the past decade. A neural basis for the visuallexicon and for auditory verbal short-term memory componentshave been proposed, with some implication that the observedneural manifestation of developmental dyslexia is task-specific(i.e., functional rather than structural).
fMRI's in dyslexics have provided important data supporting theinteractive role of the cerebellum and cerebral cortex as well asother brain structures.
Genetic research into dyslexia has its roots in the examination ofpost-autopsy brains of people with dyslexia. When theyobserved anatomical differences in the language center in adyslexic brain, they showed microscopic cortical malformationsknown as ectopias and more rarely vascular micro-malformations, and in some instances these corticalmalformations appeared as a microgyrus. These studies andthose of Cohen et al. 1989 suggested abnormal corticaldevelopment which was presumed to occur before or during thesixth month of fetal brain development.
Diverse ﬁndings appear incompatible with the theory suggestingthat abnormal embryonic cell formations within the linguisticcerebral cortex have a primary role in causing dyslexia. Abnormal embryonic cell formations in dyslexics found onautopsy have also been reported in non-language cerebral andsubcortical brain structures. MRI data have conﬁrmed acerebellar role in dyslexia. Developmental dyslexia ofgenetic or prenatal origin has been highly correlated to aprimary neurophysiological dysfunction or delayed maturation ofthe cerebellar and vestibular systems. Without anyreasonable probability of newly and rapidly creating ordissolving primary abnormal embryonic (or other) cell formationswithin the brain: The acquired postnatal onset or intensiﬁcationof dyslexic reading and non-reading symptoms and relatedcerebellar-vestibular neurological and electronystagmographicdiagnostic signs have been reported following acquiredvestibular-based impairments triggered by ear and sinusinfections, mononucleosis, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo,spinning and zero gravity as well as whiplash and postconcussion states.:5-6, 45-48, 111-112, 326, 346-349:349
Dyslexia and its many reading and non-reading symptoms aswell as their determining mechanisms have often shown rapidimprovements when treated with cerebellar-vestibular stabilizingmedications and related non-medical therapies.Discontinuing medication shortly after favorable therapeuticresponses are obtained results in an immediate reappearanceof all dyslexic symptoms and their determining mechanisms.These ﬁndings suggest an alternative possibility that theabnormal brain cells found in dyslexic brains secondarily resultfrom the dyslexic process and its assumed primary cerebellar-vestibular causation.:349
Gene-environment interaction Edit
For more details on Gene x Environment, see Gene-environment interaction.
Research has examined gene–environment interactions inreading disability through twin studies, which estimate theproportion of variance associated with environment and theproportion associated with heritability. Studies examining theinfluence of environmental factors such as parental education, and teacher quality have determined that genetics havegreater influence in supportive, rather than less optimalenvironments. Instead, it may just allow those genetic riskfactors to account for more of the variance in outcome, becauseenvironmental risk factors that affect that outcome have beenminimized.
As the environment plays a large role in learning and memory, itis likely that epigenetic modifications play an important role inreading ability. Animal models and measures of gene expression and methylation in the human periphery are used tostudy epigenetic processes, both of which have limitations inextrapolating to the human brain.
Movies about dyslexia Edit
See also Edit
- Cerebellar theory ofdyslexia
- Child development
- Deep dyslexia
- Dual-route hypothesis toreading aloud
- Dyslexie (font)
- History of the alphabet
- Learning theory (education)
- List of artistic depictions ofdyslexia
- List of people diagnosedwith dyslexia
- Philosophy of language
- Writing system
- ^ The term dyslexia can refer to an anomalous approachto processing information. Silverman, L. (2000). The two-edged sword of compensation: How the gifted cope withlearning disabilities. In Uniquely gifted: Identifying andmeeting the needs of twice exceptional learners, pages153-159.
- ^ a b "Dyslexia Information Page". National Institute ofNeurological Disorders and Stroke. 12 May 2010.Retrieved 5 July 2010.
- ^ Grigorenko, Elena L. (January 2001). "Developmental Dyslexia: An Update on Genes, Brains, and Environments". Journal of Child Psychology andPsychiatry 42 (1): 91–125. doi:10.1111/1469-7610.00704.PMID 11205626.
- ^ Schulte-Körne G, Warnke A, Remschmidt H (November2006). "[Genetics of dyslexia]". Z Kinder JugendpsychiatrPsychother (in German) 34 (6): 435–44.doi:10.1024/1422-49184.108.40.2065. PMID 17094062.
- ^ Pennington, B.F.; Santerre-Lemon, L., Rosenberg, J.,MacDonald, B., Boarda, R., Friend, A., Leopold, D.R.,Samuelsson, S., Byrne, B., Willcutt, E.G., & Olson, R.K. (24October 2011). "Individual Prediction of Dyslexia bySingle Versus Multiple Deficit Models". Journal ofAbnormal Psychology 121 (1): 212–224.doi:10.1037/a0025823. PMID 22022952.
- ^ Fink RP (1998). "Literacy development in successful men and women with dyslexia". Annals of Dyslexia 40(1): 311–346.
- ^ Ferrer E, Shaywitz BA, Holahan JM, Marchione K,Shaywitz SE (January 2010). "Uncoupling of reading andIQ over time: empirical evidence for a definition ofdyslexia". Psychol Sci 21 (1): 93–101.doi:10.1177/0956797609354084. PMID 20424029.
- ^ Stanovich KE (December 1988). "Explaining thedifferences between the dyslexic and the garden-varietypoor reader: the phonological-core variable-differencemodel". Journal of Learning Disabilities 21 (10): 590–604.doi:10.1177/002221948802101003. PMID 2465364.
- ^ Warnke, Andreas (19 September 1999). "Reading and spelling disorders: Clinical features and causes".Journal European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 8 (3):S2–S12. doi:10.1007/PL00010689. Retrieved 11 July2010.
- ^ a b Czepita D, Lodygowska E (2006). "[Role of the organof vision in the course of developmental dyslexia]". KlinOczna (in Polish) 108 (1–3): 110–3. PMID 16883955.
- ^ Valdois S, Bosse ML, Tainturier MJ (November 2004)."The cognitive deficits responsible for developmentaldyslexia: review of evidence for a selective visualattentional disorder". Dyslexia 10 (4): 339–63.doi:10.1002/dys.284. PMID 15573964.
- ^ Heim S, Tschierse J, Amunts K (2008). "Cognitive subtypes of dyslexia". Acta NeurobiologiaeExperimentalis 68 (1): 73–82. ISSN 0065-1400.PMID 18389017.
- ^ Facoetti A, Lorusso ML, Paganoni P et al. (April 2003)."Auditory and visual automatic attention deficits indevelopmental dyslexia". Brain Res Cogn Brain Res 16(2): 185–91. doi:10.1016/S0926-6410(02)00270-7.PMID 12668226.
- ^ Ahissar M (November 2007). "Dyslexia and theanchoring-deficit hypothesis". Trends Cogn. Sci. (Regul.Ed.) 11 (11): 458–65. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2007.08.015.PMID 17983834.
- ^ a b Chung KK, Ho CS, Chan DW, Tsang SM, Lee SH(February 2010). "Cognitive profiles of Chinese adolescents with dyslexia". Dyslexia 16 (1): 2–23.doi:10.1002/dys.392. PMID 19544588.
- ^ Handler SM, Fierson WM, Section on Ophthalmology etal. (March 2011). "Learning disabilities, dyslexia, andvision". Pediatrics 127 (3): e818–56.doi:10.1542/peds.2010-3670. PMID 21357342.
- ^ Human Voice Recognition Science Magazine July 2011
- ^ McCandliss BD, Noble KG (2003). "The development ofreading impairment: a cognitive neuroscience model".Ment Retard Dev Disabil Res Rev 9 (3): 196–204.doi:10.1002/mrdd.10080. PMID 12953299.
- ^ a b Birsh, Judith R. (2005). "Research and readingdisability". In Judith R. Birsh. Multisensory Teaching ofBasic Language Skills. Baltimore, Maryland: Paul H.Brookes Publishing. p. 8. ISBN 978-1-55766-676-5.OCLC 234335596.
- ^ "What Is Dyslexia?". AVKO Education ResearchFoundation. Retrieved 5 July 2010.
- ^ "Developmental dyslexia in adults: a research review". National Research and Development Centre forAdult Literacy and Numeracy. 1 May 2004. pp. *133–147.Retrieved 13 May 2009.
- ^ a b c Brazeau-Ward, Louise (2001). Dyslexia and the University. Canada: Canadian Dyslexia Centre. pp. 1–3.ISBN 1-894964-71-3.
- ^ Castles A, Coltheart M (May 1993). "Varieties ofdevelopmental dyslexia". Cognition 47 (2): 149–80.doi:10.1016/0010-0277(93)90003-E. PMID 8324999.
- ^ a b c Habib M (December 2000). "The neurological basis of developmental dyslexia: an overview and working hypothesis". Brain 123 (12): 2373–99.doi:10.1093/brain/123.12.2373. PMID 11099442.
- ^ Boder E (October 1973). "Developmental dyslexia: adiagnostic approach based on three atypical reading-spelling patterns". Developmental Medicine and ChildNeurology 15 (5): 663–87. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8749.1973.tb05180.x. PMID 4765237.
- ^ a b Galaburda AM, Cestnick L (February 2003). "[Developmental dyslexia]". Rev Neurol (in Spanish;Castilian). 36 Suppl 1: S3–9. PMID 12599096.
- ^ Cestnick Laurie, Coltheart M, (March 1999). "TheRelationship Between Language-Processing and Visual-Processing Deficits in Developmental Dyslexia". Cognition71 (3): 231–55. doi:10.1016/S0010-0277(99)00023-2.PMID 10476605.
- ^ Cestnick Laurie, Jerger James, (October 2000)."Auditory temporal processing and lexical/nonlexicalreading in developmental dyslexics". Journal of AmericanAcademy of Audiology 11 (9): 501–513. PMID 11057735.
- ^ Cestnick Laurie (August 2001). "Cross-modalitytemporal processing deficits in developmentalphonological dyslexics". Brain and Cognition 46 (3): 319–325. doi:10.1006/brcg.2000.1273. PMID 11487282.
- ^ Davis, R. D. (with E. M. Braun). (1994). The gift ofdyslexia. Burlingame, CA: Ability Workshop Press.
- ^ a b c Huc-Chabrolle M, Barthez MA, Tripi G, BarthélémyC, Bonnet-Brilhault F (April 2010). "[Psychocognitive andpsychiatric disorders associated with developmentaldyslexia: A clinical and scientific issue]". Encephale (inFrench) 36 (2): 172–9. doi:10.1016/j.encep.2009.02.005.PMID 20434636.
- ^ Schott GD, Schott JM (December 2004). "Mirror writing, left-handedness, and leftward scripts". Arch. Neurol. 61(12): 1849–51. doi:10.1001/archneur.61.12.1849.PMID 15596604.
- ^ Schott GD (January 2007). "Mirror writing: neurological reflections on an unusual phenomenon". J.Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr. 78 (1): 5–13.doi:10.1136/jnnp.2006.094870. PMC 2117809.PMID 16963501.
- ^ Cherry RS, Kruger B (April 1983). "Selective auditoryattention abilities of learning disabled and normalachieving children". Journal of Learning Disabilities 16(4): 202–5. doi:10.1177/002221948301600405.PMID 6864110.
- ^ Willcutt, E.G. & Pennington, B.F. (2000). "Comorbidity ofreading disability and attention-deficit/ hyperactivitydisorder: Differences by gender and subtype". Journal ofLearning Disabilities 33: 179–191.
- ^ Willcutt, E.G. & Pennington, B.F. (2010). "Etiology andneuropsychology of comorbidity between RD and ADHD:The case for multiple-deficit models". Cortex 46: 1345–1361.
- ^ Facoetti, Andrea; Nicola Corradi, Milena Ruffino, SimoneGori, Marco Zorzi (27 July 2010). "Visual spatial attentionand speech segmentation are both impaired inpreschoolers at familial risk for developmental dyslexia".Dyslexia 16 (3): 226–239. doi:10.1002/dys.413.PMID 20680993.
- ^ Lovio R, Näätänen R, Kujala T (June 2010). "Abnormal pattern of cortical speech feature discrimination in 6-year-old children at risk for dyslexia". Brain Res. 1335:53–62. doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2010.03.097.PMID 20381471.
- ^ Ho CS-H Lai DN-Ch (1999). "Naming-speed deficits andphonological memory deficits in Chinese developmentaldyslexia". J Learn Disabil 2: 173–86. doi:10.1016/S1041-6080(00)80004-7.
- ^ Kobayashi, MS, Haynes, CW, MacAruso, P, Hook, PE,Kato, J (June 2005). "Effects of mora deletion, nonwordrepetition, rapid naming, and visual search performanceon beginning reading in Japanese". Annals of dyslexia 55(1): 105–28. doi:10.1007/s11881-005-0006-7.PMID 16107782.
- ^ Jones, MW, Branigan, HP, Kelly, ML. (2009). "Dyslexicand nondyslexic reading fluency: Rapid automatizednaming and the importance of continuous lists".Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 16 (3): 567–572.doi:10.3758/PBR.16.3.567.
- ^ Ise E, Schulte-Körne G (June 2010). "Spelling deficits indyslexia: evaluation of an orthographic spelling training".Ann Dyslexia 60 (1): 18–39. doi:10.1007/s11881-010-0035-8. PMID 20352378.
- ^ "What is Dyslexia?". The National Center for LearningDisabilities. 5 March 2009. Retrieved 9 July 2012.
- ^ Nancy Mather; Barbara J. Wendling; Alan S Kaufman,Ph.D. (20 September 2011). Essentials of Dyslexia Assessment and Intervention. John Wiley & Sons.pp. 28–. ISBN 978-1-118-15266-9. Retrieved 10 April2012.
- ^ Berkhan, O. (February 1885). "Über die Störung derSchriftsprache bei Halbidioten und ihre Ähnlichkeit mitdem Stammeln" [About the disorder of written language ofhalf-idiots and their similarity with dislaia]. Archiv fürPsychiatrie und Nervenkrankenheiten 16 (1): 78–86.doi:10.1007/BF02227300.
- ^ Wagner, Rudolph (January 1973). "Rudolf Berlin:Originator of the term dyslexia". Annals of Dyslexia 23 (1):57–63. doi:10.1007/BF02653841.
- ^ Berlin R (1884). "Über Dyslexie" [About dyslexia]. Archivfur Psychiatrie 15: 276–278.
- ^ Henry, Marcia K. (2005). "The history and structure ofthe English language". In Judith R. Birsh. MultisensoryTeaching of Basic Language Skills. Baltimore, Maryland:Paul H. Brookes Publishing. p. 154. ISBN 978-1-55766-676-5. OCLC 234335596.
- ^ a b Seki A, Kassai K, Uchiyama H, Koeda T (March2008). "Reading ability and phonological awareness inJapanese children with dyslexia". Brain Dev. 30 (3): 179–88. doi:10.1016/j.braindev.2007.07.006. PMID 17720344.
- ^ a b Siok WT, Niu Z, Jin Z, Perfetti CA, Tan LH (April 2008)."A structural-functional basis for dyslexia in the cortex of Chinese readers". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(14): 5561–6. doi:10.1073/pnas.0801750105.PMC 2291101. PMID 18391194.
- ^ a b Wydell TN, Butterworth B (April 1999). "A case studyof an English-Japanese bilingual with monolingualdyslexia". Cognition 70 (3): 273–305. doi:10.1016/S0010-0277(99)00016-5. PMID 10384738.
- ^ David Crystal. 1987. The Cambridge encyclopedia oflanguage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
- ^ Ziegler, J.C.; Perry, C.; Ma-Wtatt, A.; Ladner, D.; Schulte-Korne, G. (2003). "Developmental dyslexia in differentlanguages: Language specific or universal?". Journal ofExperimental Child Psychology 86 (3): 169–193.doi:10.1016/S0022-0965(03)00139-5. PMID 14559203.
- ^ Nicolson RI, Fawcett AJ (September 2009). "Dyslexia,dysgraphia, procedural learning and the cerebellum".Cortex 47 (1): 117–27. doi:10.1016/j.cortex.2009.08.016.PMID 19818437.
- ^ Ramus F, Pidgeon E, Frith U (July 2003). "Therelationship between motor control and phonology indyslexic children". Journal of Child Psychology andPsychiatry, and Allied Disciplines 44 (5): 712–22.doi:10.1111/1469-7610.00157. PMID 12831115.
- ^ Rochelle KS, Witton C, Talcott JB (February 2009)."Symptoms of hyperactivity and inattention can mediatedeficits of postural stability in developmental dyslexia".Experimental Brain Research 192 (4): 627–33.doi:10.1007/s00221-008-1568-5. PMID 18830588.
- ^ Eva Germano, Antonella Gagliano, Paolo Curatolo(2010). "Comorbidity of ADHD and Dyslexia".Developmental Neuropsychology 35 (5): 475–493.doi:10.1080/87565641.2010.494748. PMID 20721770.
- ^ Moore DR (July 2011). "The diagnosis and managementof auditory processing disorder". Lang Speech Hear ServSch 42 (3): 303–8. doi:10.1044/0161-1461(2011/10-0032). PMID 21757566.
- ^ Veuillet E, Magnan A, Ecalle J, Thai-Van H, Collet L(November 2007). "Auditory processing disorder in children with reading disabilities: effect of audiovisual training". Brain 130 (Pt 11): 2915–28.doi:10.1093/brain/awm235. PMID 17921181.
- ^ Ramus F (April 2003). "Developmental dyslexia: specificphonological deficit or general sensorimotordysfunction?". Current Opinion in Neurobiology 13 (2):212–8. doi:10.1016/S0959-4388(03)00035-7.PMID 12744976.
- ^ Moncrieff, Deborah (2 February 2004). "Temporal Processing Deficits in Children with Dyslexia".speechpathology.com (speechpathology.com). Retrieved13 May 2009.
- ^ Moncrieff, Deborah (23 September 2002). "Auditory Processing Disorders and Dyslexic Children".audiologyonline.com (audiologyonline.com). Retrieved 13May 2009.
- ^ Schuele CM (2004). "The impact of developmentalspeech and language impairments on the acquisition ofliteracy skills". Ment Retard Dev Disabil Res Rev 10 (3):176–83. doi:10.1002/mrdd.20014. PMID 15611989.
- ^ Peterson RL, McGrath LM, Smith SD, Pennington BF(June 2007). "Neuropsychology and genetics of speech, language, and literacy disorders". Pediatr. Clin.North Am. 54 (3): 543–61, vii.doi:10.1016/j.pcl.2007.02.009. PMID 17543909.
- ^ Levinson, H.N. (1980). A Solution to the Riddle –Dyslexia. Springer-Verlag. pp. 25–71. ISBN 978-1-4613-9774-8.
- ^ a b Levinson, H. N. (1988). The cerebellar-vestibularbasis of learning disabilities in children, adolescents andadults: Hypothesis and study, perceptual motor skills 67.pp. 983–1006.
- ^ Leiner, H.; Leiner, R.; Dow (1991). "The human cerebro-cerebellar system: Its computing, cognitive, and languageskills". Behavioral Brain Research 44 (2): 113–28.
- ^ Snider, R.S.; Stowell, A. (1944). "Receiving areas of thetactile, auditory, and visual systems in the cerebellum".Journal of Neurophysiology 7: 331–357.
- ^ a b Frank, J.; Levinson, H. N. (1977). Academic TherapyPublications 12 (4): 411–425.
- ^ a b c Levinson, H. N. (1991). "Dramatic favorableresponses of children with learning disabilities or dyslexiaand attention deficit disorder to antimotion sicknessmedications: Four case reports". Perceptual Motor Skills71: 67–82.
- ^ Ayres, A. J. (1978). "Learning disabilities and thevestibular system". Journal of Learning Disabilities 11 (1):30–41.
- ^ a b Solan, O. D.; Shelley-Tremblay, Harold A.; Larson,John; Steven, D. (2007). "Vestibular function, sensoryintegration, and balance anomalies: A brief literaturereview". Review Optom Vis Dev 38 (1): 1–5.
- ^ Eccles, J.C. (1986). "Learning in the motor system".Progress in Brain Research 64: 3–17.
- ^ Frank, J.; Levinson, H. N. (1976). Academic Therapy 12:5–27.
- ^ Jody Swarbrick; Abigail Marshall (10 September 2004).The Everything Parent's Guide To Children With Dyslexia: All You Need To Ensure Your Child's Success. Everything Books. pp. 93–. ISBN 978-1-59337-135-7. Retrieved 10 April 2012.
- ^ Nicola Brunswick (10 April 2012). Supporting Dyslexic Adults in Higher Education and the Workplace. JohnWiley & Sons. pp. 115–. ISBN 978-0-470-97479-7.Retrieved 10 April 2012.
- ^ Thomas Richard Miles (15 January 2004). Dyslexia and stress. Whurr. ISBN 978-1-86156-383-5. Retrieved 10April 2012.
- ^ Lyytinen, Heikki, Erskine, Jane, Aro, Mikko, Richardson,Ulla (2007). "Reading and reading disorders". In Hoff,Erika. Blackwell Handbook of Language Development.Blackwell. pp. 454–474. ISBN 978-1-4051-3253-4.
- ^ Nalewicki, Jennifer (31 October 2011). "Bold Stroke: New Font Helps Dyslexics Read". Scientific American.Scientific American, a Division of Nature America, Inc.Retrieved 31 October 2011.
- ^ de Leeuw, Renske (December 2010). Special Font For Dyslexia? (PDF) (in English/Dutch). University of Twente.p. 32. Archived from the original on 1 November 2011.
- ^ Chenault B, Thomson J, Abbott RD, Berninger VW(2006). "Effects of prior attention training on child dyslexics' response to composition instruction".Developmental Neuropsychology 29 (1): 243–60.doi:10.1207/s15326942dn2901_12. PMID 16390296.
- ^ Berkhan O (1917). "Über die Wortblindheit, einStammeln im Sprechen und Schreiben, ein Fehl imLesen". Neurol. Centralbl. 28.
- ^ Wagner, Rudolph (January, 1973). "Rudolf Berlin:Originator of the term dyslexia". Annals of Dyslexia 23 (1):57–63. doi:10.1007/BF02653841.
- ^ Snowling MJ (November 1996). "Dyslexia: a hundred years on". BMJ 313 (7065): 1096–7.doi:10.1136/bmj.313.7065.1096. PMC 2352421.PMID 8916687.
- ^ "Dyslexia assessment in Arabic. Gad Elbeheri. 2006;Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs – Wiley InterScience".
- ^ Aboudan, R, et aL. (2011). "Dyslexia in the United ArabEmirates University–a study of prevalence in English andArabic". International Journal of English Linguistics 1: 64–72.
- ^ Smythe I, Everatt J, Al-Menaye N et al. (August 2008)."Predictors of word-level literacy amongst Grade 3children in five diverse languages". Dyslexia 14 (3): 170–87. doi:10.1002/dys.369. PMID 18697190.
- ^ Friedmann N, Rahamim E (September 2007)."Developmental letter position dyslexia". J Neuropsychol 1(Pt 2): 201–36. doi:10.1348/174866407X204227.PMID 19331018.
- ^ Schiff R, Raveh M (May 2007). "Deficient morphologicalprocessing in adults with developmental dyslexia: anotherbarrier to efficient word recognition?". Dyslexia 13 (2):110–29. doi:10.1002/dys.322. PMID 17557687.
- ^ Cao F, Bitan T, Chou TL, Burman DD, Booth JR (October2006). "Deficient orthographic and phonological representations in children with dyslexia revealed by brain activation patterns". Journal of Child Psychologyand Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines 47 (10): 1041–50.doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2006.01684.x. PMC 2617739.PMID 17073983.
- ^ Chertkow H, Murtha S (1997). "PET activation and language". Clinical Neuroscience 4 (2): 78–86.PMID 9059757.
- ^ McCrory E, Frith U, Brunswick N, Price C (September2000). "Abnormal functional activation during a simpleword repetition task: A PET study of adult dyslexics".Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 12 (5): 753–62.doi:10.1162/089892900562570. PMID 11054918.
- ^ Schmahmann, J. D.; Sherman, J. C. (1998). "Thecerebellar cognitive affective syndrome". Brain 121: 561–79.
- ^ Rae, C.; Harasty, J. H.; Djendrowskji, J.; Talcott, J.;Simpson, J.; Blamire, A.; Dixon, R. M.; Lee, M.; Thompson,C. H.; Styles, P.; Richardson, A. J.; Stein, J. F. (2001). 5thBDA International Conference. pp. 1–10.
- ^ Allen, G.; Buxton, R. B.; Wong, E. C.; Courchesne, E. (28March 1997). "Attentional activation of the cerebellumindependent of motor involvement". Science 275 (5308):1940–1943.
- ^ a b Galaburda AM, Kemper TL (August 1979)."Cytoarchitectonic abnormalities in developmentaldyslexia: A case study". Annals of Neurology 6 (2): 94–100. doi:10.1002/ana.410060203. PMID 496415.
- ^ a b Galaburda, A.M.; Sherman, G.F.; Rosen, G.D.; Aboitiz,F.; Geschwind, N. (August 1985). "Developmentaldyslexia: four consecutive patients with corticalabnormalities". Annals of Neurology 18: 222–223.doi:10.1002/ana.410180210. PMID 4037763.
- ^ Cohen M, Campbell R, Yaghmai F (June 1989)."Neuropathological abnormalities in developmentaldysphasia". Annals of Neurology 25 (6): 567–70.doi:10.1002/ana.410250607. PMID 2472772.
- ^ a b Levinson, H.N. (2008). Revised and updated smartbut feeling dumb new understanding and dramatictreatment for dyslexia (LD/ADD). Stonebridge Publishing,Ltd. pp. 170–173. ISBN 978-0-615-15276-9.
- ^ a b c Levinson, H.N. (1994). A Scientific Watergate –Dyslexia. Stonebridge Publishing. pp. 347–349. ISBN 0-9639303-0-3.
- ^ Livingstone, M.S.; Drislane, F.W.; Rosen, G.D.;Galaburda, A.M. (1991). "Physiological and anatomicalevidence of a magnocellular defect in developmentaldyslexia". Proceedings of the National Academy ofSciences of the USA 88: 7943–7947.
- ^ Rae, C., Lee, M.A., Dixon, R.M., Blamire, Thompson,C.H., Styles, P., Talcott, J., Richardson, A.J., and Stein, J.F.(1998). "Metabolic abnormalities in developmentaldyslexia detected by H Magnetic resonancespectroscopy". The Lancet 351 (119): 1893–1952.
- ^ Frank, J.; Levinson, H.N. (1973). "Dysmetric Dyslexiaand Dyspraxia: Hypothesis and study". Journal ofAmerican Academy of Child Psychiatry 12: 690–701.
- ^ De Quiros, J.B. (1976). "Diagnosis of vestibulardisorders in the learning disabled". Journal of LearningDisabilities 9: 39–58.
- ^ Frank, J.; Levinson, H.N. (1975-1976). "Dysmetricdyslexia and dyspraxia: Synopsis of a continuingresearch project". Academic Therapy 11: 133–143.
- ^ Levinson, H.N. (1980). A Solution to the Riddle Dyslexia.Springer-Verlag. pp. 96–99. ISBN 3-540-90515-4.
- ^ Rahko, Tapani (2003). "Alleviating dyslexia by treatingbenign positional vertigo and eye movementdisturbances, saccades". Finnish Medical Journal 39:3883–3886.
- ^ Friend A., DeFries J.C., Olson R.K. (November 2008)."Parental Education Moderates Genetic Influences on Reading Disability". Psychol Sci. 19 (11): 1124–1130.doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.2008.02213.x. PMC 2605635.PMID 19076484.
- ^ Taylor J, Roehrig AD, Soden Hensler B, Connor CM,Schatschneider C. (April 2010). "Teacher quality moderates the genetic effects on early reading on reading disability". Science 328 (5977): 512–14.doi:10.1126/science.1186149. PMC 2905841.PMID 20413504.
- ^ Pennington, B.F., McGrath, L.M., Rosenberg, J.,Barnard, H., Smith, S.D., Munroe, H.B., Willcutt, E.G.,Friend, A., DeFries, J.C., & Olson, R.K. (2009). "Gene x Environment Interactions in Reading Disability and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder".Developmental Psychology 45 (1): 77–89.doi:10.1037/a0014549. PMC 2743891. PMID 19209992.
- ^ Pennington, BF; McGrath LM, Rosenberg J, Barnard H,Smith SD, Willcutt EG, Friend A, Defries JC, Olson RK.(January 2009). "Gene × Environ
How to Cite This ArticleEdit
ss414"Dyslexia" A Mini Encyclopedia. 2017. Did You Know Wiki. 26 June. 2017 <www.dyk.wikia.com>
ss414"Dyslexia" A mini Encyclopedia. 2017. dky.wikia.com. (June 26, 2017) "SS414"
ss414"Dyslexia" A mini Encyclopedia. 2017. Retrieved June 26, 2017 from dky.wikia.com "SS414"
Citing your sources helps people know your not plagiarizing. With Did You know? Wikia's Citation feature, you can site your sources in three different Styles
Modern-Language-Association This is the most common citation style. It is mainly used for research reports in schools.
American-Psychological-Association Another common style. This one is mainly used for College and higher grade schools.